Every summer, veterinarians warn about the dangers of excessive heat for dogs. Why is heatstroke so dangerous?
Heatstroke is characterized by a body temperature between 106 and 109°F (normal is 101.5°F give or take a degree). It is most likely to develop under one or more of the following conditions:
- hot and humid weather combined with exercise and/or a lack of shade and access to water
- being confined in a car or other location where heat can build up
- advanced age
- heart disease
- upper respiratory disease (e.g., laryngeal paralysis or brachycephalic airway syndrome)
But what exactly happens when a dog’s body temperature reaches 106°F or above, and why is it so dangerous?
First, as a dog’s temperature begins to climb, the body cools itself via:
- drooling, and
- dilating blood vessels on the surface of the body (vasodilation)
These mechanisms are sufficient up to a point. However, if there is no relief from high external temperatures, the dog’s excessive panting, drooling and vasodilation leads to dehydration and low blood pressure.
These conditions inhibit the body’s ability to cool itself. It sets up a vicious cycle wherein the hotter the body becomes, the less effective are its mechanisms to deal with the situation.
When body temperatures reach the danger zone:
- proteins break down
- cell membranes are damaged, and
- the body can no longer produce energy at the cellular level
As tissues degrade and blood clotting abnormalities develop, the kidneys and liver begin to fail, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract dies, and heart and brain damage occur.
If a body temperature of 110°F is reached, a dog can die within just a few minutes.
Early symptoms of heatstroke include
- extreme panting
- a rapid heartbeat
- red mucous membranes
- vomiting, and
As his condition worsens, a dog may suffer from:
- difficulty breathing
- abnormal bruising
- bloody vomit and diarrhea
- blue or pale mucous membranes
- seizures, and paradoxically
- a lower than normal body temperature
If you suspect that a dog is suffering from heatstroke, thoroughly soak him with cool water (do not use ice though) and transport him to the nearest veterinary clinic in a car with the air conditioning on or with all the windows open.