If you’ve no idea what a lick granuloma is, count your blessings! What a nuisance they can be!
The official name for this disease is acral lick dermatitis. “Acral” refers to an extremity (leg), and “dermatitis” means inflammation of the skin. The “lick” represents the incessant licking behavior that causes the problem.
Acral lick granulomas are skin sores that typically occur in large breed dogs. Specifically, the most susceptible breeds are Doberman Pinchers and Labradors. Further, males are more likely to develop one than females.
For reasons we don’t understand, affected dogs pick a spot towards the foot on one or more of their legs and begin licking…… and licking, and licking and licking. The effect is no different than if you picked a spot on your arm and scratched at it round the clock.
The chronic self-inflicted irritation can result in
- thickening of the skin
- increased pigmentation (skin appears darker than normal)
- an ulcerated surface with bleeding
- and infection complete with pus, redness, and tenderness
The average lick granuloma varies from dime-sized up to the size of a silver dollar.
What causes lick granulomas?
Acral lick granulomas may start with something that traumatizes or irritates the skin, including:
- or a foreign body such as a thorn or splinter
As a result, the dog overreacts lingually—no tongue in cheek here—and, over time, a lick granuloma appears. The theory is that incessant licking may represent a self-soothing behavior associated with the release of endorphins.
What supports the hypothesis is that if one is savvy enough to interrupt the licking cycle at one site, many clever dogs redirect their attention to a new site on a different leg.
Another possibility is that arthritis in the joint underlying the affected skin surface.
Licking is tantamount to a person massaging a sore joint. Yet another theory is that boredom is the culprit. Frankly, there are likely many different causes for lick granulomas.
Diagnosing lick granuloma
The official procedure to diagnose acral lick dermatitis is a skin biopsy.
Your veterinarian may also recommend skin scraping (scraping material from the skin surface for evaluation under the microscope to rule out mange mites) and collecting samples for bacterial and fungal cultures. However, some veterinarians feel comfortable making the call based purely on history and visual inspection of the affected skin site.
Nonetheless, making the diagnosis is the easy part. Stopping the licking, on the other hand, is notoriously difficult.
In fact, it can be a nightmare because many affected dogs cannot quit this obsessive behavior. And even when one thinks the problem is licked (pun intended), a year or two down the road, the self-trauma cycle may begin all over again.
What is the treatment?
The ideal therapy for lick granulomas is the identification and treatment of the underlying cause (foreign body, allergy, infection).
For example, here are some therapeutic options if the cause remains elusive (true for most dogs with lick granulomas) or resists treatment. Keep in mind, what works well for one dog may not work for another.
Keep the site covered with a bandage.
You can use standard bandaging material, or one of your own socks might be suitable. Cut off the foot part and pull the tube section up over the affected area. Secure in place with some tape. If the lick granuloma is low enough on the leg, you can slip the dog’s foot into the toe of the sock.
A product called DogLeggs may be worth a try as well. If you are really, really, really lucky, your dog who is obsessed with applying his mouthparts to the spot you’ve covered will leave the bandage in place.
Warning! It is easy to put a bandage on that is too tight (a recipe for disaster)—practice bandaging with a member of your veterinary team watching before trying it yourself at home.
Second warning! Your dog may go one step beyond removing the bandage- he or she may eat the darned thing. Close supervision is a must for the first day or two after accessorizing your dog with a bandage. The last thing anyone wants is for a lick granuloma issue to morph into a gastrointestinal foreign body issue.
Taste deterrents work for some dogs, and there are various products on the market (Bitter Apple is the classic). If this is to stand a chance of breaking the cycle, the application must be frequent and consistent.
However, most dogs are so determined to lick that they will persevere despite the adverse taste reaction. And, in all honesty, the looks on their faces after licking the nasty stuff time after time suggest that this “solution” may be less than humane.
Elizabethan collars work well for some dogs. Don’t forget to rearrange your house in advance so that nothing valuable is damaged as your dog learns to navigate his surroundings with a satellite dish around his neck. (No, it won’t enhance your television viewing.)
Your veterinarian might prescribe topical anti-inflammatory medications or medications that help rebuild healthy tissue. These typically require keeping the tongue away from the skin, so the medication has a fighting chance.
Acupuncture and/or chiropractic treatments can work for some dogs.
Laser therapy at the site is successful with some lick granulomas.
See if keeping your dog super-busy for a week or two breaks the cycle. The hope is alleviating boredom and/or creating a dog that is too tired to lick.
Try increased play/exercise, a large Kong toy filled with peanut butter, doggie daycare while you are away from home, or adopt a playmate (careful here- sometimes the stress of a new animal in the household amplifies licking behavior).
Behavior modification medication
Behavior modification medications work for some incessant lickers. However, they should be the last resort when other efforts have failed. The categories of medications that your veterinarian can try include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-inhibiting drugs, and endorphin blockers.
Tricky to deal with
Ultimately, the more treatment options there are for a particular disease, the less we know about how best to treat it!
Lick granulomas are a classic example. If your dog suffers from lick granuloma, I strongly encourage you to enlist help from your veterinarian. If, together, you try two or three things without success, please consider consulting with a board-certified dermatologist. To find one in your neighborhood, visit the American College of Veterinary Dermatology website.
Although lick granulomas look like a small problem, it can be downright difficult to cure.
If your dog’s lick granuloma remains small and clear of infection, and if the sound of licking is not keeping you awake at night, simply living with the problem is a reasonable choice.
Has your dog had a lick granuloma? What worked for you?
Excessive Licking in Dogs: Why Is My Dog Licking Incessantly?
Just Ask the Expert: How do you combat acral lick dermatitis?